Celebrex is a pharmacotherapy that doctors may prescribe for individuals who experience back pain, inflammation, spondylitis, and/or polyposis. A doctor will also provide with a prescription for this medication a specific set of instructions and information with respect to proper dosing, contraindications, and active ingredient properties.
Celebrex is classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). The underlying composition of Celebrex includes components that are selective inhibitors of the synthesis of cyclooxygenases (COX-2) cytochrome. Therefore, Celebrex administration leads to the reduction in renal synthesis of prostaglandins and relieves pain and inflammation.
Celebrex is dispensed as hard gelatin capsules containing 100 mg (blue) or 200 mg (yellow capsules) of celecoxib. Celebrex capsules are packaged as 6, 10, or 30 pieces in blisters.
The major active ingredient in Celebrex is celecoxib. The main function of celecoxib is to suppress COX-2, which may be activated in response to the release of biological substances following the onset of inflammation. In addition to demonstrating anti-inflammatory properties, Celebrex also possesses analgesic and antipyretic effects.
Clinical studies report that Celebrex is also effective for reducing the incidence of colon cancer. This pharmacotherapy does not alter the native function of platelets, stomach, and intestines. It also reduces the risk of ulcers and related side effects compared with other NSAIDs.
Celebrex is perfectly absorbed within the digestive tract and reaches a maximum circulating concentration 2-3 hours after administration. However, consumption of fatty foods with Celebrex increases this figure to 6-7 hours.
Celebrex is commonly prescribed to patients for the following cases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondylitis (symptomatic therapy), algodismenorea, acute pains, and adenomatous polyposis (reduces the number and size of adenomatous colorectal polyps).
The recommended dose of Celebrex is 200 mg taken twice daily. It is also suggested that doctors closely supervise the minimum effective Celebrex dose in small courses to reduce the risk of heart complications. While it is safe to take this drug 200 mg at a time or 100 mg twice daily, if necessary, Celebrex dosing can be increased to 800 mg/day (400 mg twice). Celebrex adjustments are not typically required for elderly patients except in cases where body weight is less than 50 kg. However, for patients with liver problems, Celebrex dosage should be reduced by half.
The proper dosage of Celebrex will depend on the patient condition as follows:
- Rheumatoid arthritis, 200-400 mg/day in two separate doses;
- Ankylosing spondylitis, 200 mg/day, which may be increased to 400 mg;
- Acute pain syndrome, 400-600 mg for the first day of use, and when taken longer 200 mg 2 times/day;
- Family adenomatous polyposis, 400 mg twice daily.
Celecoxib Use During Pregnancy
When pregnant, Celebrex should only be taken under strict oversight by a doctor. Side effects of this medication can cause harm to a fetus. In all instances, Celebrex should not be taken in the last trimester of pregnancy as this medication can cause suppression of the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins, leading to the interruption of uterus contractile function.
Because of the risk of developing thrombosis, Celebrex therapy is carried out as quickly as possible. Celebrex is not able to replace acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of thrombosis. Therefore, if you take Celebrex along with aspirin, there is a risk of ulceration.
Taking Celebrex can lead to the development of arterial hypertension while demonstrating a nephrotoxic effect. In cases where Fluconazole is already being taken, Celebrex should only be prescribed as a minimum dose. For patients who demonstrate a slow metabolism, this medication should be used with caution. If a rash develops when taking Celebrex a patient should immediately stop using this medication.
In cases where Celebrex is prescribed following coronary artery bypass surgery, for the first 10-14 days of recovery, there is an increased risk for heart attack and circulatory disorders of the brain. In patients demonstrating fluid retention and peripheral edema is noted, Celebrex should still only be prescribed in conjunction with proper hydration. Celebrex should not be used in place of glucocorticosteroids, and this medication can cause anaphylactic reactions.
Celebrex may demonstrate interactions with other medicines as follows:
- Treatment with warfarin increases the risk of bleeding and may lead to death.
- Fluconazole and ketoconazole increase the concentration of celecoxib.
- ACE inhibitors and angiotensin blockers reduce the antihypertensive effect.
- Medications containing lithium lead to an increase in the concentration of lithium in the blood.
- Other NSAIDs adversely affect the body leading to rashes.
Celebrex and Alcohol
Alcohol-containing beverages should not be consumed at any time when taking Celebrex as the risk of side effects can be increased.
When Celebrex is taken while consuming alcohol, the following effects can occur:
- the formation of ulcers
- severe bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
- ulceration of the mucous membranes
- skin rash
- decrease in liver function
- accumulation of active substances in blood and damage to the cardiovascular system.
While taking Celebrex, a patient may experience the following side effects:
- allergic reactions, rash, itching, dyspepsia, flatulence, swelling, and/or insomnia
- cough, rhinitis, anxiety, ear noise, anemia, hot flashes, increased blood pressure, arrhythmia, impaired vision, hair loss, hives, and/or dermatitis
- angioedema, ulcers, pancreatitis, confusion stenocardia, myocardial infarction, nausea, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, prostatitis
- kidney stones formation, stroke, sleep disorder, vein thrombosis, and/or atherosclerosis
- hemorrhoids, symptoms of menopause, low hemoglobin
When Celebrex is taken in large doses, this can lead to overdose. However, statistics on the rate of overdose occurrence is limited. According to clinical research, there have been no reports of clinically significant side effects when Celebrex is administered as a single dose of 1.2 g or repeated at 1.2 g three times per day.
If an overdose is suspected, immediate supportive therapy should be provided. According to medical experts, dialysis is not effective in removing celecoxib from the blood since this substance binds to plasma proteins.
The following contraindications are associated with Celebrex and this drug should not be taken when these cases apply:
- intolerance or hypersensitivity syndrome to drug components such as sulfonamides
- allergic reactions when taking aspirin or other NSAIDs as an analgesic following surgery for aortic-coronary shunting children under 18 years of age, pregnancy, and/or lactation.
- Celebrex should not be used as a substitute for acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of thrombosis and other cardiovascular disorders.
Patients with a predisposition for adverse reactions to Celebrex may experience bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract even when this drug is administered in minimal doses.
Celebrex is not associated with affecting a person’s ability to concentrate attention, manage various tasks, and engage in activities that require a high rate of psychomotor reactions.
Throughout a course of treatment with Celebrex, close monitoring of blood, kidney, and liver function should always occur.